The CDU: Germany’s major post-war party seeking to redefine itself | TUSEN | 25.09.2021

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No party has led the German government as often as the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), having occupied the chancellor’s office for 57 of the 72 years of the Federal Republic of Germany’s existence. But despite that, the CDU is anything but a monolithic or homogeneous political bloc.

Founded in 1945 as an interdenominational Christian party, the CDU effectively succeeded the pre-war Catholic Centre Party, and it has never polled lower than the 31% it won at the first vote in post-war Germany in 1949.

If anything, the key to the party’s success over the years has been its ability to speak to the political center — and to produce iconic, broadly popular leaders.

Germany’s first postwar chancellor, Konrad Adenauer, was the father of the modern CDU and modern Germany

The Adenauer era

The CDU began coalescing in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War while Germany still lay in ruins, and the first party chairman was very much a man of history. Sixty-nine-year-old Konrad Adenauer was a former mayor of Cologne and a member of the Center Party in the Weimar Republic. He had clashed repeatedly with the Nazi regime during the Third Reich and thus had anti-fascist credentials.

Adenauer led the CDU to a 31-percent plurality in the first-ever election in the Federal Republic in 1949, becoming chancellor by a single vote (in essence, his own) in parliament. But although Adenauer initially just scraped into power, the party gained in popularity, the four governments he led were very stable, and the CDU came to be seen as the guarantor of German solidity and prosperity. Campaign posters often featured the slogan “No experiments!”

In many respects, Adenauer set a centrist tone that continues today. He was a staunch advocate for West Germany’s alignment of itself with the Western Allies, particularly the US. But he also encouraged the country’s rapprochement with Western Europe and especially France and remained convinced that the Federal Republic would reunite with Communist East Germany someday – though it was a day he would never see for himself. 

Adenauer’s reign came to an end in 1963, and he died four years later at the age of 91.

Audioslideshow Helmut Kohl Michail Gorbatschow

Kohl was another German patriot at the head of the CDU

The Kohl epoch

Together with its Bavarian sister party, the Christian Social Union (CSU), the CDU traditionally commands the most votes in Germany, but the party spent 13 years out of power in the late 1960s and 1970s until lumbering Rhinelander Helmut Kohl recaptured the chancellory in 1982. He hardly swept to power, only becoming chancellor because the Free Democrats (FDP) abandoned their coalition with the SPD and formed a new alliance with his conservatives. 

Kohl wasn’t really a government-slashing conservative in the mold of Margaret Thatcher or Ronald Reagan. Initially, he wasn’t known for much of anything at all except a stagnant economy and was considered likely to get chucked out of office sooner or later. Then came November 9, 1989.

Kohl’s handling of the demise of communism in Eastern Europe and the reunification of Germany continued Adenauer’s policy of advancing German national interests while further integrating the country into Western Europe. Thanks to Kohl, whose death in June 2017 was marked by an unprecedented memorial service in the European Parliament in Strasbourg, the CDU will forever be known as the “party of unity.”  

See also  Parrots rush to Angela Merkel's swan song | TUSEN | 24.09.2021

Kohl wasn’t able to solve the socio-economic problems accompanying reunification, however, and after losing the 1998 election, he left the CDU in the midst of a campaign contributions scandal and a new leadership battle. But from that wreckage emerged the CDU’s third notable leader.

The Merkel years

Chancellor Angela Merkel hardly stormed into office, reluctantly forming a grand coalition with the Social Democrats (SPD) after a close election in 2005 to gain power. But she grew into the job and consistently ranked as Germany’s most well-known, most trusted, and most well-liked politician. If there’s one reason why the CDU vastly outperformed the SPD in opinion polls for many years, Merkel was it.

Like Adenauer and Kohl, Merkel was a centrist and a pragmatist. The position for which she may be remembered best is her welcoming stance toward refugees, which caused her to dip temporarily in the polls and hurt her popularity in the party.

Over the past years Merkel’s CDU has moved further toward the center than ever before in its history. Abolishing military conscription and phasing out nuclear energy were two of the most radical changes during her tenure.

Many CDU members reject gay marriage and abortion, while Merkel — a Protestant pastor’s daughter — and others paid lip service to Christian values, turning the CDU into an outwardly secular party, leaving the Catholic-dominated CSU to take up more overtly religious positions.

Ever the pragmatic tactician, Merkel opened the door tolegalizing gay marriage in 2017  by allowing a conscience vote in the Bundestag and then voted against it herself.

The CDU stands for fiscal stability, but it doesn’t advocate the sort of hostility toward the social welfare state that’s a feature of conservative movements in other parts of the world. The CDU advocates canceling out the country’s debt, favors security and increased state surveillance and is generally more free-market-friendly than its main political competitor, the center-left Social Democrat SPD.

In foreign policy, the CDU is traditionally very positive toward the United States and a strong transatlantic partnership. Critics say the chancellor has always been more interested in smooth governance than ideology, and Merkel herself might very well not disagree with that assessment.

While Adenauer and Erhard co-operated with non-Nazi parties to their right, the CDU has later worked to marginalize its right-wing opposition.

In the last general election in 2017, the CDU lost over 8 percent compared to the previous vote four years before, when it polled 41.5 percent. Analysts found that many voters abandoned Germany’s biggest party for the far-right populist Alternative for Germany (AfD).

Armin Laschet

Armin Laschet took over the CDU chairmanship in January 2021

Post-Merkel era

When Angela Merkel stepped down from the CDU party leadership, she was succeeded initially by one of her allies: Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer, who resigned after a dramatic drop in support. She was succeeded by Armin Laschet in January 2021, who promised to continue Merkel’s course.

But in view of a looming defeat in the Bundestag elections, there is growing concern among the CDU/CSU about serious upheavals. “If the CDU/CSU is not in government, the party will face the most difficult times,” CSU Chairman Markus Söder told the Welt am Sonntag newspaper.

Leading CDU politicians expect enormous “shock waves” in the party if it loses the chancellorship after 16 years of Angela Merkel and goes into opposition. Wing fights and personal disputes could break out openly. Armin Laschet would be expected to resign as CDU leader and the party conservatives would emerge strong. The conservative wing of the party could rally around finance expert and former Blackrock CEO, Friedrich Merz, an old Merkel foe who lost to Laschet in the race for the party leadership.

Many CDU supporters no longer know what their party stands for Party researcher Oskar Niedermayer told the Tagesspiegel newspaper, “It’s quite clear that the CDU is on the verge of losing its status as a big tent party forever.” In the European Union, he said, there are enough examples of Christian Democratic parties that have collapsed after electoral disasters and never regained their former strength, pointing to the Democrazia Cristiana in Italy as an example.

This is an updated version of a previous article.

While you’re here: Every Tuesday, TUSEN editors round up what is happening in German politics and society, with an eye toward understanding this year’s elections and beyond. You can sign up here for the weekly email newsletter Berlin Briefing, to stay on top of developments as Germany enters the post-Merkel era.

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